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act of sending out; act of starting or initiating; commencement; inauguration
incentive
behind
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ESL Lesson: Conjunctions

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Conjunctions or "Joined up writing"

If you want to be rude about somebody's ability to express themselves and indicate that they can't say more than one complete sentence at a time, then you could say: they can't even string two sentences together. Now, string together is a sort of knitting expression suggesting that different parts of a material you're making are attached one to the other. Mind you, there's nothing wrong with short simple sentences all in a row. They can be appealing but sometimes you want to expand your ideas and that's when you make use of the joining words, called "conjunctions". They come in different shapes and sizes with of course different meanings and uses. They start small like "and", "but" and "as" growing into the larger varieties like "though" and "although".

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Now about 600 years before the birth of Jesus Christ a man called Aesop was born in Greece. He started life in very poor circumstances but because he was very clever and could often see answers to problems that other people couldn't solve, he became a sort of adviser to the ruler and in his spare time dashed off some very memorable fables. The stories often depict animals as the main characters and they all have a moral purpose. Let's take the one called The Ant and the Dove. In the story I'm going to use conjunctions, which I shall write in CAPITAL letters:

One day an ant was strolling beside a river AND he was feeling very thirsty BECAUSE it was very hot. He was sure that there was a river nearby AS he had been in this place before. ALTHOUGH his legs were very small he ran as fast as he could UNTIL he reached the riverbank. He raced up to the edge of the water BUT in his haste he went too quickly AND fell into the water. SINCE his mother had never taught him to swim, he was in great danger of drowning. WHILE this drama with our friend was taking place, a dove was sitting on a branch over the river. The dove realised that UNLESS he did something quickly, the ant would not survive. EVEN IF he tried, the dove knew he couldn't dive in and save the ant. Suddenly he did something brilliant IN ORDER THAT the ant could escape. He picked a leaf from the tree AND dropped it into the water SO THAT the ant could climb on to it AND float to safety. WHEN the ant was next in the area some days later, he saw a man with a net, who wanted to catch his friend, the dove. AFTER the ant had thought about how to help the dove, he decided to take immediate action. IN SITE OF THE FACT that the ant was very small, he was able to give someone a nasty bite. The ant thought he could bite the man in the hand BUT that meant a long journey OR he could bite his foot. IF he did that immediately, his plan might work SO he gave the man a really good bite. The man let out a scream AND dropped the net. WHEREAS the man had tried to be quiet in catching the bird, the noise he made warned the dove who flew away to safety.

The moral of the story is: IF you help someone, they will also help you.

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Next:ESL Lesson: Conditionals

Author: Alan Townend




English Grammar through Stories (PDF)
English Grammar through Stories could be your saviour — it shows you a completely new way of learning. Forget about old-fashioned text books with difficult explanations and boring sample sentences. You can improve your grammar very fast if you know how. The answer is a few clicks away: Read these unique short stories by Alan Townend and absorb the patterns of English grammar automatically. You can only learn if you enjoy what you are doing. You will love the funny characters in English Grammar through Stories because they show the strengths and weaknesses of human nature. On top of all that, each story concentrates on one particular grammar item so all you have to do is read the book and have fun. You will be amazed at how easily you can improve your grammar.

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