Here is all you want to know about English! Start your FREE email English course now!
Google  
English-Test.net
 
supplementary; auxiliary; secondary; lesser in importance
dismal
domestic
subsidiary
pervasive
full quiz correct answer

TOEFL listening: A lecture from a social sciences class

Overview of TOEFL listening part
TOEFL lecture 1
TOEFL lecture 2
TOEFL lecture 3
TOEFL lecture 4
TOEFL lecture 5
TOEFL lecture 6
TOEFL lecture 7
TOEFL lecture 8 — Script Q&A
TOEFL lecture 9
TOEFL lecture 10
TOEFL lecture 11
TOEFL lecture 12
TOEFL lecture 13
TOEFL lecture 14
TOEFL lecture 15
TOEFL lecture 16
TOEFL lecture 17
TOEFL lecture 18
TOEFL lecture 19
TOEFL lecture 20
TOEFL lecture 21
TOEFL lecture 22
TOEFL lecture 23
TOEFL lecture 24
TOEFL lecture 25
TOEFL lecture 26
TOEFL lecture 27
TOEFL lecture 28
TOEFL lecture 29
TOEFL lecture 30
TOEFL lecture 31
TOEFL lecture 32
TOEFL lecture 33
TOEFL lecture 34
TOEFL lecture 35
TOEFL lecture 36
TOEFL lecture 37
TOEFL lecture 38
TOEFL lecture 39
TOEFL lecture 40
TOEFL lecture 41
TOEFL lecture 42
TOEFL lecture 43
TOEFL lecture 44
TOEFL lecture 45
TOEFL lecture 46
TOEFL lecture 47
TOEFL lecture 48
TOEFL lecture 49
TOEFL lecture 50
Conversations (50 audio exercises)
Lectures (50 audio exercises)
Prep forum for the TOEFL test
English Language Exercises 2206 English Exercises
This English grammar test package will help you learn new phrases, idioms, expressions and grammar structures every single day. And you won't even have to cram any grammar rules or vocabulary words into your head. Instead, you will be absorbing bits and pieces of the English language almost without realizing it.
Get FREE English course via e-mail 
 
50 TOEFL lectures   50 TOEFL conversations
Listen to a conversation 69390 listened   

Please activate Flash to use MP3 player.




Improve your progress in learning English! —
 
These users have taken this test.
Next users >
5/5
See progress report of Simoroshka
Simoroshka

one year ago
 
5/5
See progress report of Briskyboy
Briskyboy

one year ago
 
5/5
See progress report of Thi Nhan
Thi Nhan

one year ago
 
5/5
See progress report of Vuqar1.618
Vuqar1.618

one year ago
Do you want to be in this list? Please register on our forum und take the tests with your own progress report!



50 TOEFL lectures
50 TOEFL lectures
A great variety of English listening comprehension tests that will help you increase your TOEFL test score.
  • based on TOEFL academic lectures
  • written and recorded by experienced US authors and voice-over specialists

  • TOEFL Preparation tests Increase your TOEFL test score with
    120 Vocabulary + 100 Grammar tests
    600 word flashcards plus an ESL book
    Dear Friend,
    if you have any questions or comments regarding this article, please click here: Wanted: Feedback on TOEFL Listening Exercises.
    50 TOEFL lectures   50 TOEFL conversations

    TOEFL Listening Comprehension Transcript

    Narrator
    Listen to part of a lecture from a social sciences class.

    Prof: Have you ever heard something like this on the news: "Air Force One has landed, and the president and first lady are now walking across the tarmac"? Ever wonder what tarmac is? If so, take heart: you're not alone. Tarmac, it turns out, is a type of surface pavement that is short for [enunciates slowly and clearly] tar-penetration macadam. Got that? It's a mouthful. Actually, here in the United States we don't use Tarmac much anymore, because it's been supp -- that is, upstaged, by asphalt. But we still use the term when referring to the pavement at airports.

    The "macadam" part of Tarmac refers to a Scotsman named John McAdam. McAdam, in the early nineteenth century, invented a method to strengthen paved roads and increase the way water drains off roadways. He named his technique, modestly, "macadam roads" [laughter]. Macadam roads had a sloped roadway covered with three layers of grav [false start] angular gravel, which was compacted by a heavy roller. These roads were undoubtedly stronger than previous ones, but they posed a new difficulty: dust. When automobiles began using them, the cars raised swirling clouds of debris, making it, shall we say, daunting to see. So, as early as the 1830s, people started experimenting by covering macadam roads with tar and sand, in an attempt solve this problem.

    In 1901, a man named E. Purnell Hooley [pause] really [laughter] invented a mixture of tar and a furnace waste material called slag, to come up with the infamous tar-penetration macadam -- Tarmac -- that improved the dust resistance on macadam roads. Soon, roads throughout England were resurfaced with Hooley's invention, and the company he founded, Tarmac Limited, became very profitable. During World War II, the British used Tarmac to build airstrips for jet fighters, which is why we still use the term Tarmac today as a synonym for runways and other paved airport areas. OK. Now from Britain, Tarmac spread to the United States, but Americans preferred asphalt, which is a substance that occurs naturally in lakes and rocks, as well as synthetically as a byproduct of petroleum production. Asphalt is more resilient than tar, and holds up better in a wider range of temperatures. Its first recorded use dates back to about 3,000 BC, when the Sumerians used it to, uh, preserve mummies, waterproof ships, and cement bricks. Hot-mix asphalt, or HMA, is a combination of aggregates - like sand, gravel or, um, crushed stone minerals - and an asphalt binder, like coal tar. It was first used in the US for crosswalks and sidewalks in the late 19 --er, 1860s. The first road was paved with HMA in 1870, in New Jersey.

    Until about 1900, US producers used natural asphalt, which they got mainly from two large lakes in Venezuela. Refined petroleum asphalt first appeared in the 1870s, and by 1907 its production out-paced natural asphalt. HMA pavement took its modern form in the early twentieth century, when Frederick Warren earned patents for a hot-mix asphalt paving that he termed "bitulithic." That's B-I-T-U-L-I-T-H-I-C. Typically, bitulithic mix contains ingredients that make it more "fluid" than sheet asphalt. Laura Ingalls Wilder, a noted American author, described this fluidity upon her first encounter with asphalt, as she watched ladies walk across the asphalt pavement. "Their heels dented the street, and while we watched, these dents slowly filled up and smoothed themselves out," she wrote. "It was like magic."

    Warren's patents expired in 1920, and since then asphalt mixes have improved. As the popularity of motor vehicles skyrocketed, local governments scrambled to construct more and better roads, leading to technological innovations in both asphalt production and spreading techniques. Today, HMA covers almost 95 percent of America's paved roadways, as well as most of its sidewalks, runways, driveways, parking lots and tennis courts.


    Excerpt from the TOEFL test listening conversation

    Prof: The "macadam" part of Tarmac refers to a Scotsman named John McAdam. McAdam, in the early nineteenth century, invented a method to strengthen paved roads and increase the way water drains off roadways. He named his technique, modestly, "macadam roads" [laughter].
    50 TOEFL lectures
    50 TOEFL lectures
    A great variety of English listening comprehension tests that will help you increase your TOEFL test score.
  • based on TOEFL academic lectures
  • written and recorded by experienced US authors and voice-over specialists
  • 50 TOEFL lectures   50 TOEFL conversations


      copyright © 2003—2019 english-test.net  
     
    Get FREE English course via e-mail