Google
English-Test.net
Find penpals and make new friends today!
 
to progress; to promote; to make a payment before it is due
preempt
approach
advance
relate
full quiz correct answer
 
Username
Password
 Remember me? 
Search   Album   FAQ   Memberlist   Profile   Private messages   Register   Log in 

How to learn English? (30/30 Challenge)


Goto page Previous  1, 2, 3, 4 ... 99, 100, 101  Next
 
ESL Forum | What do you want to talk about?
How important are free learning materials to you? | My back garden/my back yard
listening exercises
Message
Author
30 Day Challenge summary #31 (permalink) Thu Jul 06, 2006 5:07 am   30 Day Challenge summary
 

Hello everyone,

And thanks for participating in the 30/30 Challenge. You can find my very first summary of my listening experiences below.

Today I listened to a documentary called "The New Arab World" on the BBC. In the programme Arab Affairs Specialist Magdi Abdeldahi explored Dubai, an emirate that is about to eclipse Egypt and the Lebanon in interntional trade. The key to Dubai's success lies in the emirate's free trade policy: thanks to it Dubai appeals to many foreign companies as well as to individuals. Some affluent foreign people go as far as to settle down in Dubai thanks to exceptional trading opportunities and modest taxation. All this naturally enhances Dubai's economy, and thanks to this the service sector has become more distinguished, something that's crucial to the development of an emirate that needs sources of income other than just oil trade.

Below you can find some vocabulary words and expressions that were used in the programme that you might find worth glancing through:

emirate
alchemy
thriving in the desert
Gulf Countries
eclipse Egypt and the Lebanon

Please continue submitting your summaries every single day. I'm very much looking forward to hearing more about your experiences with English audio-resources.
Englishuser
I'm here quite often ;-)


Joined: 06 Jun 2006
Posts: 806

How to learn English? (30/30 Challenge) #32 (permalink) Thu Jul 06, 2006 12:22 pm   How to learn English? (30/30 Challenge)
 

Hi Torsten :D
First thanks a lot because you reaper my write and you saw me my mistakes :oops:
I studied my mistakes, please, you still reaper my write and I'll good student.
Today is third in this challenge.
I listened from B.B.c 30 moments in the morning about scientific subject and they talked on disaster natural and one of them explained Earthquake and he said:
An earthquake is a sudden shift or movement in the tectonic plate in the Earth's crust. On the surface, this is manifested by a moving and shaking of the ground, and can be large damaging to poorly built . The most powerful earthquakes can destroy even the best built . In addition, they can happen secondary disasters, such as tsunamis and volcanic eruptions. Earthquakes cause along fault line . They are can killing hundreds of thousands of people, such as 2004 Indian Ocean earthquakes.
And the another man said : that remember us in Tsunami which happened in Indonesia 2004 it was the huge.. Suddenly one of broadcaster said: but what Tsunami mean? All people know Earthquake and Tornado & Volcano etc
The man said: A tsunami is a giant wave of water which rolls into the shore of an area with a height of over 15 m. It comes from Japanese words meaning harbor and wave. Tsunami can be caused by undersea earthquakes as in the 2004 Indian Ocean Earthquake. The tsunami start in Indian Ocean Earthquake currently ranks as the danger in recorded history.
Frankly , I can't understand all your told but I try.

Mba. :wink:
_________________
Right is always stronger than iniquity.
Dark Magician
I'm here quite often ;-)


Joined: 21 May 2006
Posts: 494
Location: UAE-DUBAI

What do you know about the progressive forms?English grammar exercises — improve your English knowledge and vocabulary skillsAre you a native speaker of English? Then you should read this!Here is how you can learn English the fun way! Click to subscribe to free email English course
How to learn English? (30/30 Challenge) #33 (permalink) Thu Jul 06, 2006 13:02 pm   How to learn English? (30/30 Challenge)
 

Dark magician wrote:
First thanks a lot because you reaper my write and you saw me my mistakes.

First off, thanks for amending my summary because now I can see my mistakes.

Dark magician wrote:
I studied my mistakes, please, you still reaper my write and I'll good student.

I've analyzed my mistakes and it would be great if you could continue editing my texts. I promise to be a good student.

Dark magician wrote:
Today is third in this challenge.

Today is the third day of my 30/30 Challenge program.

Dark magician wrote:
I listened from B.B.c 30 moments in the morning about scientific subject and they talked on disaster natural and one of them explained Earthquake and he said:

In the morning I listened to the BBC for 30 minutes. It was a science programme about natural disasters and a person explained the nature of earthquakes and he said:

Dark magician wrote:
An earthquake is a sudden shift or movement in the tectonic plate in the Earth's crust. On the surface, this is manifested by a moving and shaking of the ground, and can be large damaging to poorly built. The most powerful earthquakes can destroy even the best built.

Well, Mba you have tried to copy this part from a website but somehow your text is a bit jumbled up. Here is the original:

An earthquake is a sudden shift or movement in the tectonic plate in the Earth's crust. On the surface, this is manifested by a moving and shaking of the ground, and can be massively damaging to poorly built structures. The most powerful earthquakes can destroy even the best built of structures. In addition, they can trigger secondary disasters, such as tsunamis and volcanic eruptions. Earthquakes occur along fault line, and are unpredictable.

Dark magician wrote:
And the another man said:

Mba, before I correct your sentence, please take this test on other/another/others/the other.

Dark magician wrote:
that remember us in Tsunami which happened in Indonesia 2004 it was the huge.

that reminds us of the Tsunami that happened in Indonesia in 2004 and it was it really huge.

Dark magician wrote:
Suddenly one of broadcaster said: but what Tsunami mean? All people know Earthquake and Tornado & Volcano etc

Suddenly one of the broadcasters said: "But what does Tsunami mean?" Everyone knows what earthquakes, tornados or volcanos are."

Mba, please study this lesson on the articles and also read this discussion titled What does it mean?

Dark magician wrote:
The man said: A tsunami is a giant wave of water which rolls into the shore of an area with a height of over 15 m. It comes from Japanese words meaning harbor and wave. Tsunami can be caused by undersea earthquakes as in the 2004 Indian Ocean Earthquake. The tsunami start in Indian Ocean Earthquake currently ranks as the danger in recorded history.

A tsunami is a giant wave of water which rolls into the shore of an area with a height of over 15 m (50 ft). It comes from the Japanese words for harbor and wave. Tsunami can be caused by undersea earthquakes as in the 2004 Indian Ocean Earthquake, or by landslides such as the one which occurred at Lituya Bay, Alaska. The tsunami generated by the 2004 Indian Ocean Earthquake currently ranks as the deadliest tsunami in recorded history.

Dear Mba,

Please continue with your listening activities. Keep in mind that you must listen to authentic English for at least 30 throughout the day. Also, when you create your summary, make sure you write short sentences that are grammatically correct. I know this can be challenging but if you have to try and raise your awareness of grammar rules. Maybe, it is best if you do a 30/30/30 Challenge:
  • 30 minutes listening
  • 30 test questions (3 tests per day)
  • 30 days

    Regards,
    Torsten

    TOEFL listening lectures: A university lecture by a professor of Paleontology
  • Torsten
    Learning Coach
    Torsten Daerr

    Joined: 25 Sep 2003
    Posts: 17788
    Location: EU

    Improve your english #34 (permalink) Thu Jul 06, 2006 13:45 pm   Improve your english
     

    My listening report today is about the North-Korea Konflikt.

    North-Korea has launched seven missiles in the Sea of Japan. N-Korea had confirmed that it was a test-fire. USA, China and South-Korea are want to call the Security Council. The Sercurity Concil is considering a draft resolution in reaction of the launching. N-Korea is the first public, that had test-fired missiles.The governments of the other states it seems as if a provocation.The last time N-Korea tested was for 8 years. Analysts might the it happen again. The Security Concil want to resume the investigation.

    Ok, that was my report.

    I listened BBC on 8 a.m for 15 minutes and in the afternoon I want to watch NCC.

    Follow question about this sentence:

    They have agreed to coporate, with no mention of punitive measures.

    "Patient dialogue" rather sanctions.

    It is anxious to continue engaging with them.

    They said it would send its.

    Regards Heike
    Lissy
    I'm new here and I like it ;-)


    Joined: 28 Jun 2006
    Posts: 25

    How to learn English? (30/30 Challenge) #35 (permalink) Thu Jul 06, 2006 18:02 pm   How to learn English? (30/30 Challenge)
     

    Hi Torsten :o
    That right I take some information from web but it truth I can't understand all talking so I lend some information from web (B.B.C).
    When I read your last post. In one moment, I'll check out from this challenge.
    Quickly I ask myself (I want this challenge, So I'll abider this the challenge for end) :idea:
    And I take your advice and from this moment, it become (30/30/30 Challenge) :wink:
    Mba
    _________________
    Right is always stronger than iniquity.
    Dark Magician
    I'm here quite often ;-)


    Joined: 21 May 2006
    Posts: 494
    Location: UAE-DUBAI

    Improve your english #36 (permalink) Thu Jul 06, 2006 21:43 pm   Improve your english
     

    Hi Heike

    I think that was a difficult report to listen to, but you handled it well. My comments are in blue. Words in [brackets] should be deleted.

    lissy/Heike wrote:
    My listening report today is about the North Korea Conflict.

    North Korea has launched seven missiles in the Sea of Japan. North Korea has confirmed that it was a test-firing. The USA, China and South Korea [are] want to call in the U.N. Security Council. The Security Council is considering a draft resolution in reaction [of] to the launching. North Korea is the first [public,] country that has test-fired missiles.[The governments of the other states it seems as if a provocation.] Governments of other countries see this as a provocation. The last time North Korea tested was [for] 8 years ago. Analysts worry that it might [the it] happen again. The Security Council wants to resume the investigation.

    Ok, that was my report.


    Thanks for the listening details.
    lissy/Heike wrote:
    I listened to BBC at 8 a.m for 15 minutes and in the afternoon I want to watch NCC.


    I understood that you want clarification of the sentences you listed below. I've reworded them a bit and hope that clarifies things for you. I wasn't sure about your last sentence, though, because it doesn't seem to be complete.

    lissy/Heike wrote:
    Follow question about this sentence:

    They have agreed to cooperate, with no mention of punitive measures.
    They have agreed to work together and no one has mentioned punishment.

    "Patient dialogue" rather than sanctions.
    There will be talking rather than punishment.

    It is anxious to continue engaging with them.
    It (a country?) wants to continue talking or interacting with them.

    They said it would send its. :?:

    Regards Heike

    _________________
    "Nearly all men can stand adversity, but if you want to test a man's character, give him power." ~ Abraham Lincoln
    Yankee
    I'm a Communicator ;-)


    Joined: 16 Apr 2006
    Posts: 8325
    Location: USA

    30/30/30 Challenge #37 (permalink) Fri Jul 07, 2006 11:11 am   30/30/30 Challenge
     

    Hello,

    I have started my listening-lessons today.
    I?ve heard Radion BBC at the morning.
    They have informed about tennis and football. German players and Germany have gotten a very positiv image. And the players are a young generation and thus good chances in the future.

    Now I have seen the sky news.
    In Afghanistan became killed a young soldier on wednesday. He was 19 years old.
    One of the bomber from 07.07.05 have sent a videomessage. The serices to be continue. Sky news had maked a interview with a survivor from 7/7. She said it?s enough, but when it happend you can do nothing. She had memories on the 7/7. She had good and bad days afterwards. The people must more help to fight the terrorists.
    The shuttle with the german Thomas Reiter has docked with the international space station.
    Today the cricket legend Fred Trueman is taking place. He was in the 50 and 60 years the superstar.
    Weather: On the weekend it becomes fresher, to 22C. Tomorrow are coming little clouds and a little bit of rain. From greece is coming sunshin then.
    On CNN they have spoken about football, too.
    France and Italy are in the final of worldcup. It?s to become a professional football. The keeper from france had blocked the balls from Ronaldo and Figo. So had won france. France had won last at 2000 with a golden goal at the Europe Cup in Rotterdam.

    So, this is my report from today. You must surely much correct. But I think you can understand me?!

    Best regards
    Katrin
    Katrin
    I'm new here and I like it ;-)


    Joined: 28 Jun 2006
    Posts: 11

    English-Lesson: Listen #38 (permalink) Fri Jul 07, 2006 11:13 am   English-Lesson: Listen
     

    Hello Katrin,

    And thank you for taking part in the 30/30 challenge. Please find my suggestions below, in capital letters.

    Katrin wrote:
    Hello,
    I have started my listening-lessons today.
    I?ve heard/LISTENED TO Radion BBC/BBC RADIO at the/IN THE morning.
    They (have) informed ME about tennis and football. German players and Germany have gotten/GOT a very positiv/POSITIVE image. And the players are (a) young (generation) and WILL thus HAVE good chances in the future.

    Now I have seen the sky news.
    In Afghanistan became killed a young soldier/A 19-YEAR-OLD SOLDIER GOT KILLED IN AFGHANISTAN on wednesday/Wednesday (note that days of the week are capitalised in English). (He was 19 years old.)
    One of the bomber/TERRORISTS from/OF 07.07.05/7TH JULY 2005 have/HAS sent a videomessage. The serices/SERIES IS to be continue/CONTINUED. Sky news had maked a interview with/INTERVIEWED a survivor from 7/7/OF THE 7TH JULY TERRORIST ATTACK. She said it?s enough, but when it happend/HAPPENS you can do nothing/CAN'T DO ANYTHING. She had memories on/REMEMBERED the 7/7. She had good and bad days afterwards. The people must (more help)/DO MORE to fight the terrorists/TERRORISM.
    The shuttle with the german/German (note that nationality words should be capitalised) Thomas Reiter has docked with the international space station.
    Today the cricket legend Fred Trueman (is taking place). Comment: Events take place, not people. Fred Trueman passed away on the 1st of July. Is his funeral taking place? He was A SUPERSTAR in the 50'S and 60'S (years the superstar).
    Weather: On/IN the weekend it becomes fresher, to/THE HIGHEST TEMPERATURE IS 22C. Tomorrow are coming little clouds/THE WEATHER WILL BE PARTLY CLOUDY and a little bit of rain/, EVENTUALLY WITH SOME SHOWERS From greece is coming sunshin then. Comment: Sunshine does not come from Greece. Sunny weather has to do with different changes in the atmosphere (fronts).
    On CNN they (have) spoken/SPOKE about football, too.
    France and Italy are in the World Cup final (of worldcup). It?s to become a professional/AN INTERESTING football GAME. The keeper from france/France had blocked the balls/BALL from Ronaldo and Figo. So had won france/THIS WAY FRANCE WON. Comment: Unclear reference. Which game are you referring to? France had won last at/THE LAST TIME FRANCE WON WAS IN 2000, WHEN THE FRENCH TEAM SCORED (with) a golden goal at/IN the Europe Cup in Rotterdam.

    So, this is my report from today. You must surely much correct. But I think you can understand me?!

    Best regards
    Katrin

    It's easy to understand pretty much everything in your text. Keep in mind that nationality words and days of the week are capitalised in English.
    Englishuser
    I'm here quite often ;-)


    Joined: 06 Jun 2006
    Posts: 806

    How to learn English? (30/30 Challenge) #39 (permalink) Fri Jul 07, 2006 11:17 am   How to learn English? (30/30 Challenge)
     

    Cristina wrote:
    Ok,this is my report
    [Firstable] First of all / firstly,WARNING YOU WONT UNDERSTAND ANYTHING
    It is unclear who won Mexico's elec[c]tion
    In Mexico there's no official winner in Sunday's presidential election, however candidates Andres and Felipe Calderon both say they [want] won ????????
    Officials are refusing to declare a winner until the end of this week
    The 52-year-old Andres Oprador mentioned something about helping poor people [who?] pay their taxes and Calderon mentioned something about encouraging investments
    Finally they mentioned that millions of Mexicans struggle to survive in a country [which has 50 percent of poverty] where 50% of the population live in poverty.

    Cris.

    Hi Cris

    Contrary to what you wrote at the beginning of your report, everything was understandable. ;) I've now made some corrections in blue. The words in [brackets] should be deleted.
    Sorry that your post was forgotten! I hope you haven't given up the challenge! :cry: Are you still listening?

    Amy
    _________________
    "Nearly all men can stand adversity, but if you want to test a man's character, give him power." ~ Abraham Lincoln
    Yankee
    I'm a Communicator ;-)


    Joined: 16 Apr 2006
    Posts: 8325
    Location: USA

    How to learn english? #40 (permalink) Sat Jul 08, 2006 15:47 pm   How to learn english?
     

    Hi Torsten :o
    In this morning I listened to Euro news, and there are a lot of news such as news about world cup and canton passk in Spain and Middle East.
    I want to talk about technical news (multimedia and internet in server's mobile in Spain)
    Spain uses this service, more these days and the most Spanish people can't live without it.
    This service can give a lot of pleasurable and useful. It can make you online always, and you know every thing in all time and you can see the news and football matches live. And you can know where you are too.
    The contrapuntal man in communications, He explain the work way this service
    When you use this service on your mobile, the mobile do connect with tower and the tower connect with station then the station translate this signal to satellite and it process this signal and mark place the mobile and retranslate the new signal to the station then tower then your mobile change this signal to photo or map or video etc
    Note this news I take it from channel Euronews (on Saturday at 8:15 am Syria).
    Mba.
    _________________
    Right is always stronger than iniquity.
    Dark Magician
    I'm here quite often ;-)


    Joined: 21 May 2006
    Posts: 494
    Location: UAE-DUBAI

    30/30/30 Challenge #41 (permalink) Sat Jul 08, 2006 16:07 pm   30/30/30 Challenge
     

    Hi Mba,

    Great to hear you are still on the program -- you are a real crusader ;-) Please find my suggestions below your sentences:

    Dark magician wrote:
    In this morning I listened to Euro news, and there are a lot of news such as news about world cup and canton passk in Spain and Middle East.

    This morning I listened to the Euro News channel and there was a lot of information about the world soccer cup and the parks? and Spain and the Middle East.

    Dark magician wrote:
    I want to talk about technical news (multimedia and internet in server's mobile in Spain).

    I also want to talk about technology issues such as multimedia and mobile Internet surfing in Spain.

    Dark magician wrote:
    Spain uses this service, more these days and the most Spanish people can't live without it.
    This service has become very popular in Span and a lot of Spaniards are addicted to it.

    Dark magician wrote:
    This service can give a lot of pleasurable and useful.

    Mobile Internet access is very useful and many people are happy to use it on a regular basis.

    Dark magician wrote:
    It can make you online always, and you know every thing in all time and you can see the news and football matches live. And you can know where you are too.

    It gives you the freedom to go online whereever you are so you can read the news and watch football in real time. On top of that you can determine your geographical postion any time.

    Dark magician wrote:
    The contrapuntal man in communications, He explain the work way this service

    The reporter explained how the service works.

    Dark magician wrote:
    When you use this service on your mobile, the mobile do connect with tower and the tower connect with station then the station translate this signal to satellite and it process this signal and mark place the mobile and retranslate the new signal to the station then tower then your mobile change this signal to photo or map or video etc

    Using this service your connect to a satellite network through your mobile phone. This system is quite similar to GPS (Global Positioning System).

    Dark magician wrote:
    Note this news I take it from channel Euronews (on Saturday at 8:15 am Syria).

    I got the information from the EuroNews channel on on Saturday at 8:15 am which I was watching in Syria.

    Dear Mba,

    What about your 30 grammar questions? Are you doing these exerices too?

    Speak to you soon,
    Torsten

    TOEFL listening lectures: A university lecture by a professor of Natural History
    Torsten
    Learning Coach
    Torsten Daerr

    Joined: 25 Sep 2003
    Posts: 17788
    Location: EU

    How to learn English? (30/30 Challenge) #42 (permalink) Sat Jul 08, 2006 17:40 pm   How to learn English? (30/30 Challenge)
     

    Hi Torsten :o
    I did three exercises today (1-2-3)
    the first my mark 8/10
    the second my mark 8/10
    and the last my mark was 4/10.
    now i am studing it from my history.
    again thx alot Torsten
    Mba
    _________________
    Right is always stronger than iniquity.
    Dark Magician
    I'm here quite often ;-)


    Joined: 21 May 2006
    Posts: 494
    Location: UAE-DUBAI

    Learning English every day #43 (permalink) Sat Jul 08, 2006 17:46 pm   Learning English every day
     

    Keep up the great work Mba. You should take each test several times until you get all the questions right. For more information on a particular grammar issue you can contact us here.

    Regards,
    Torsten

    TOEFL listening lectures: Who are not included as members of the Underground Railroad?
    Torsten
    Learning Coach
    Torsten Daerr

    Joined: 25 Sep 2003
    Posts: 17788
    Location: EU

    How to learn English? (30/30 Challenge) #44 (permalink) Sun Jul 09, 2006 15:54 pm   How to learn English? (30/30 Challenge)
     

    Hi Torsten
    Today I have a lot of world news:
    First I listened from the euornews Channel about migration from Africa to Europe and the most migrants go in Europe from Spain and they go in Europe with illicit ways and they travel through of the sea. The most they die in the ships and them hope better life and good job in Europe.
    The Euornews Channel in this morning at 7:30 am speak about world news review
    Russian air-Plane run way in Siberia and it crash in desert there was 115 people and fire up in air-plane and most people go to hospital and there were many children, and that accident happened in holiday.
    They talk too, about Poland and world cup soccer and weather in Germany it was rainy in the evening and the most fans of team Germany still stand in the streets to watch match Germany VS Portugal .
    And they talk about Middle East (Palestine and Israel) and they talk about Palestinian militants and Israeli soldiers.
    And I saw in the euronews channel small pictures it called (no comment):
    I saw Israeli tank are bombing Gaza and you saw the Palestinian children in hospital in same moment.
    About exercise now I am doing it. And on week-of I'll ask about some questions I Don't understand it . :wink:
    Mba
    _________________
    Right is always stronger than iniquity.
    Dark Magician
    I'm here quite often ;-)


    Joined: 21 May 2006
    Posts: 494
    Location: UAE-DUBAI

    How to learn english? #45 (permalink) Sun Jul 09, 2006 16:30 pm   How to learn english?
     

    Dark magician wrote:
    First I listened from Channel euornews about migration from Africa to Europe and the most migrants go in Europe from Spain and they go in Europe with illicit ways and they travel through of the sea.

    The EuroNews channel showed a report about illegal African imigrants who try to get to Europe.

    Dark magician wrote:
    The most they die in the ships and them hope better life and good job in Europe.

    Most of them hope to live a better a live in Europe and find a job there.

    Dark magician wrote:
    Channel euornews in this morning at 7:30 am speak about world news review
    Russian air-Plane run way in Siberia and it crash in desert there was 115 people and fire up in air-plane and most people go to hospital and there were many children, and that accident happened in holiday.

    This morning at 7.30 am EuroNews showed a report of a Russian airplane that had crashed in Siberia. The plane caught fire and the 115 passengers were rushed to the hospital.

    Dark magician wrote:
    They talk too, about Poland and world cup soccer and weather in Germany it was rainy in the evening and the most fans of team Germany still stand in the streets to watch match Germany VS Portugal.

    They also talked about the soccer world cup and that despite the rain many German fans were still standing in the streets watching the match Germany vs. Portugal.

    Dark magician wrote:
    And they talk about Middle East (Palestine and Israel) and they talk about Palestinian militants and Israeli soldiers.

    In addition there was a report about Palestinian militants who were fighting against Israli soldiers.

    Dark magician wrote:
    I saw Israeli tank are bombing Gaza and you saw the Palestinian children in hospital in same moment.

    I saw Israeli tanks firing shells into Gaza and Palestinian children being treated in a hospital.

    Hi Mba, it's excellent that you are still doing your listening exercises. When you write your report, please the follow these instructions:

  • write short sentences
  • try to make sure you use the correct tense
  • read Alan's lesson on articles several times

    Keep up the good work,
    Torsten

    TOEFL listening lectures: A university lecture on Modern World History
  • Torsten
    Learning Coach
    Torsten Daerr

    Joined: 25 Sep 2003
    Posts: 17788
    Location: EU

    Display posts from previous:   
    How important are free learning materials to you? | My back garden/my back yard
    ESL Forum | What do you want to talk about? All times are GMT + 1 Hour
    Goto page Previous  1, 2, 3, 4 ... 99, 100, 101  Next
    Page 3 of 101
    Latest topics on English Forums
    Please read it and correct the mistakeshow to prepare for speaking test in toeflSunbathing can be dangerousCould anyone suggest some podcasts or sites to learn about stress and intonation?Don't,Mobile phone scamApologies.Grammar scolds unite!Staying Alive!Why English is the AAA Language in the world?Would you surrender it to ?Demonstrations in Turkey?How does a drive-through bank work?

     
    You cannot post new topics in this forum
    You cannot reply to topics in this forum
    You cannot edit your posts in this forum
    You cannot delete your posts in this forum
    You cannot vote in polls in this forum

    Get FREE English course via e-mail