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TOEFL® Sentence Completion



 
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TOEFL Sentence Completion #1 (permalink) Fri Mar 17, 2017 16:27 pm   TOEFL Sentence Completion
 

I'm very poor in English grammar please help with explanation.

1._______contain many different ethnic, racial, and religious groups.
(A) Modern societies frequently
(B) Societies modern frequently
(C) Frequently societies modern
(D) Modern frequently societies

2.Iron_____in most people’s diets.
(A) is lacking
(B) lacking
(C) that lacks
(D) lacking it

3._______first sea route around Africa to India in 1498.
(A) With Vasco de Gamma as the discoverer
(B) Vasco de Gamma discovered the
(C) Vasco de Gamma was the discoverer
(D) So that Vasco de Gamma discovered the

4.Masked dancers are_________of Pueblo Indian ceremonies.
(A) a striking feature
(B) striking and feature
(C) a feature that strikes
(D) features striking

5.The Hopi people have occupied________in northeastern Arizona for at least
one thousand years.
(A) their desert homeland
(B) desert homeland of their
(C) their desert homeland is
(D) the desert is their homeland
Tingau
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Re: TOEFL Sentence Completion #2 (permalink) Sun Oct 15, 2017 17:30 pm   Re: TOEFL Sentence Completion
 

1.(A)

2.(A)

3.(B)

4.(A)

5.(A)
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TOEFL Sentence Completion #3 (permalink) Sun Oct 15, 2017 20:54 pm   TOEFL Sentence Completion
 

1. You can tell that this sentence is missing a subject. Looking at the answers, every answer has the same words, so "societies" must be the subject. "Modern" is an adjective and "frequently" is an adverb, which must modify the verb in the sentence, "contain". In English, generally adjectives go before the nouns they modify, but adverbs can go before or after their verbs. A is the answer because the adjective goes before its noun and then the adverb goes before its verb.

2. If we choose B, "lacking in most people's diets" becomes a participle phrase acting as an adjective modifying "Iron", turning the whole thing into a noun clause, not a sentence. C does the same thing using the "that" clause. D is just wrong, what would "it" be referring to? A is the best answer, we still have the "lacking in most people's diets" participle phrase, but we also have the verb "is", which makes this a complete sentence.

3. Here all we seem to have is an object phrase - something must have done something to the first sea route. So our answer needs to be a noun - verb combination. A is a prepositional phrase, so that won't work. C has a subject and verb, but it also has an object, which won't work for our sentence. D is a "that" clause, which would turn our whole sentence into a "that" clause, not an actual sentence. B just has a noun and a verb, plus a "the", but that's ok because the "the" matches with "first sea route", so B is correct.

4. Looking at the sentence, masked dancers are something. So we are looking for either a noun or adjective clause or phrase. A and C are both noun phrases/clauses. Looking at C, the final prepositional phrase does not work with "strikes", but it does work with "feature" - it describes what feature. So, A is the answer.

5. Here we are looking for an object - people occupied what? So the answer should be a noun clause or phrase. C and D have verbs, so those won't work as nouns. B looks promising, but it ends with "their" - their what? But the following word would be "in northeastern Arizona" - that won't work, since "their" needs a noun to modify. So looking at A we have a noun phrase. The "in northeastern Arizona" will work with this phrase, since it will be describing "homeland". Notice before I said adjectives go before the nouns they modify. But remember, prepositional phrases usually go right after the nouns they modify, so don't get confused.
Luschen
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TOEFL Structure #4 (permalink) Fri Nov 03, 2017 13:15 pm   TOEFL Structure
 

Q 1. Anyone who has ever pulled weeds from a garden________roots firmly anchor plants to the soil.

A) is well aware of
B) is well aware that
C) well aware
D) well aware that

The answer key shows that (B) is correct answer. Could I get an explanation why taking B for an answer and not D.
[/u]
Tingau
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Location: Osaka, Japan

TOEFL Sentence Completion #5 (permalink) Fri Nov 03, 2017 15:18 pm   TOEFL Sentence Completion
 

Here "Anyone" is the subject - "who has ever pulled weeds from a garden" is a dependent clause acting as an adjective describing anyone - which anyone? - the anyone who has ever pulled weeds from a garden. So now we have a subject, but we don't have a verb for that subject. The only answers that provide a verb for anyone are A) and B). So the simple sentence is "Anyone is aware." Looking at A), it ends in a preposition, so we would need a noun object for that preposition. Looking at the sentence, it would be "of roots firmly anchor plants to the soil". "roots firmly anchor plants to the soil" is an independent clause, which can't act like a noun here. Notice if we changed it to "roots firmly anchoring plants to the soil." it would indeed be a noun clause and A) would be the correct answer. But in this case, looking at B), it ends with "that" - when we add "that" to the independent clause, it turns into a dependent clause: "that roots firmly anchor plants to the soil", which works with aware.
Luschen
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Joined: 08 Apr 2011
Posts: 8541
Location: Nashville TN, USA

TOEFL Sentence Completion #6 (permalink) Sat Nov 04, 2017 3:23 am   TOEFL Sentence Completion
 

Mr Luschen, Thank you for taking the time out of your busy schedule to do the Grammar explanation. I truly understand the answer now.
Tingau
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Joined: 28 Apr 2010
Posts: 36
Location: Osaka, Japan

TOEFL Structure #7 (permalink) Tue Dec 05, 2017 15:33 pm   TOEFL Structure
 

Please help with grammar explanation.

1. In 1837 the University of Michigan became the first state university_____ by a board
of regents elected by the voters of the state.
(A) under the control
(B) it was controlled
(C) being controlled
(D) to be controlled
Tingau
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Joined: 28 Apr 2010
Posts: 36
Location: Osaka, Japan

TOEFL Sentence Completion #8 (permalink) Tue Dec 05, 2017 19:06 pm   TOEFL Sentence Completion
 

Wow, this one is pretty tough. Two of the choices are easy to eliminate though. For (A), we would get ".. the first state university under the control by a board ...". Something is "controlled by" something else, but "under the control of" something else. So (A) is incorrect. For (B) the rest of the sentence would be its own independent clause: "it was controlled by a board of regents ..." Therefore it would need to be its own sentence or be separated by a semicolon, so (B) is incorrect. So that leaves (C) and (D), both of which seem grammatically correct, though as a native speaker, it is clear that (D) is the correct answer because it "sounds right", but that is not very helpful to you! If you go here https://www.quora.com/Whens-the-right-time-to-use-being-and-to-be-another-example-having-and-to-have-Whats-the-difference and click on Mike Mendis' answer, he gives a good lesson. In this case, I think two aspects apply. First, we use the infinitive when talking about a specific situation. In this sentence, this is a specific action at a specific university at a specific time. Second, we use the infinitive to stress the active idea. In the sentence, the key point is the board is actively controlling the university. So both of these aspects point towards using the infinitive instead of the gerund, which is the correct answer.
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